Sunday, June 20, 2021

Gamma-Ray Laser Moves a Step Closer to Reality

A physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium. The calculations take scientists a step closer to realizing a gamma-ray laser, which may have applications in medical imaging, spacecraft propulsion, and cancer treatment.

Extremely short-lived and only briefly stable, positronium is a hydrogen-like atom and a mixture of matter and antimatter — specifically, bound states of electrons and their antiparticles called positrons. To create a gamma-ray laser beam, positronium needs to be in a state called a Bose-Einstein condensate — a collection of positronium atoms in the same quantum state, allowing for more interactions and gamma radiation.

Allen Mills working on condensate critical for gamma-ray laser

Such a condensate is the key ingredient of a gamma-ray laser. Allen Mills, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and sole author of the study that appears in Physical Review A, said:

Allen Mills is a professor in the UC Riverside Department of Physics and Astronomy. (Image: I. Pittalwala, UC Riverside)
Allen Mills is a professor in the UC Riverside Department of Physics and Astronomy. (Image: I. Pittalwala, UC Riverside)

Helium, the second-most abundant element in the universe, exists in liquid form only at extremely low temperatures. Mills explained that helium has a negative affinity for positronium; bubbles form in liquid helium because helium repels positronium. Positronium’s long lifetime in liquid helium was first reported in 1957.

When an electron meets a positron, their mutual annihilation could be one outcome, accompanied by the production of a powerful and energetic type of electromagnetic radiation called gamma radiation. A second outcome is the formation of positronium.

Helium, the second-most abundant element in the universe, exists in liquid form only at extremely low temperatures. (Image: via pixabay / CC0 1.0)
Helium, the second-most abundant element in the universe, exists in liquid form only at extremely low temperatures. (Image: via pixabay / CC0 1.0)

Mills, who directs the Positron Laboratory at UC Riverside, said the lab is configuring an antimatter beam in a quest to produce the exotic bubbles in liquid helium that Mills’ calculations predict. Such bubbles could serve as a source of positronium Bose-Einstein condensates. Mills said:

Provided by: Iqbal Pittalwala, University of California – Riverside [Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.]

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Troy Oakes
Troy was born and raised in Australia and has always wanted to know why and how things work, which led him to his love for science. He is a professional photographer and enjoys taking pictures of Australia's beautiful landscapes. He is also a professional storm chaser where he currently lives in Hervey Bay, Australia.
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