Major New Research Claims Smaller-Brained Homo Naledi Made Rock Art and Buried Their Dead, but the Evidence Is Lacking

Homo naledi skulls.

To date, the remains of more than 15 individuals belonging to a previously unknown species of extinct human, dubbed Homo naledi, have been found in the cave. These short-statured, small-brained ancient cousins are thought to have lived in Southern Africa between 335,000 and 241,000 years ago. (Image: via Wikimedia Commons)

Have We Got the Brain All Wrong?

Brain scans.

The human brain is made up of around 86 billion neurons, linked by trillions of connections. For decades, scientists have believed that we need to map this intricate connectivity in detail to understand how the structured patterns of activity defining our thoughts, feelings, and behavior emerge. (Image: Mitrey via Pixabay)

Do High-Top Shoes Actually Reduce Ankle Sprain Risk?

Black and white high top leather sneakers.

Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in sports like netball, basketball, and football where jumping, landing on one foot, and sudden direction changes are part of the game. (Image: Creative Cat Studio via Dreamstime)

Study Offers Earliest Evidence of Humans Changing Ecosystems With Fire

Burning off grassland.

Mastery of fire has given humans dominion over the natural world. A Yale-led study provides the earliest evidence to date of ancient humans significantly altering entire ecosystems with fire. (Image: stevepb via Pixabay)

Magnetism Meets Topology on a Superconductor’s Surface

Magnetic field on a superconductor's surface.

This unusual electronic energy structure could be harnessed for technologies of interest in quantum information science and electronics. (Image: geralt via Pixabay)

Methane Emissions From Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells Underestimated

Abandoned oil well.

Uncertainty about annual methane emissions from abandoned wells in U.S. and Canada highlights need for better measurements. (Image: eyeonicimages via Pixabay)

40 Percent of Renters Can’t Afford Essentials as a Result of COVID-19

Young man wearing a COVID facemask.

While older people are at the most significant risk of acquiring COVID-19, it is younger people who are more prone to the emotional side effects of living in a state of restrictions during the pandemic. (Image: via Pixabay)

Want to Stop Hoarding in Times of Crisis? Here’s How

Empty shop shelves.

Two marketing researchers, who studied this phenomena in-depth long before the current pandemic, have completed research and produced a study. (Image: via Pixabay)

Urban Trees Found to Improve Mental and General Health

Urban trees.

A study shows that adults living in leafy neighborhoods have a lower risk of developing psychological distress. (Image: Pexels via Pixabay)

Is There Such a Thing as Too Much Exercise?

Is there such a thing as too much exercise? (Image: screenshot)

What is enough exercise and can you do too much exercise? Both the national and international recommendations for physical activity and exercise echo each other, and that’s 150 minutes of moderate physical activity spread across most days of the week, or 75 minutes of vigorous activity. In addition to that, you should have two strengthening sessions a week.

When we looked at the research for our academic review of the benefits versus the negatives of participation in sport and exercise, we found a U-shaped curve response, in that too little exercise will not give you any benefits, and too much exercise will send you back down the U curve — so it can start to be detrimental.

What the exact top of the U is, where you’re getting the right amount of exercise, is going to vary for everyone and depend on many things, including cultural background, what you’ve typically done, as well as the environment you are exercising in. But broadly speaking, all of the data we have says yes, there is a sweet spot, and if you follow the recommendations, they are probably going to put you around that sweet spot.

Similar problems getting too little or too much exercise

If you’re not doing any exercise, you are not getting injured as a result of participating, but you can become susceptible to many health problems, including weakening bones, heart and circulation problems, and metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

But very serious health consequences can occur from being both too active and not active enough. An example of this is a heart attack. There is evidence to indicate that a lack of physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Similarly, competing in endurance events can expose some people (who have a genetic predisposition to heart problems) to increased risk of dying from a heart attack.

Our research looked at multiple systems and what we found with the musculoskeletal system is that if you exercise too much, you can start decreasing your bone density because you will run out of energy. We have three major fuel sources — sugars, fats, and muscle — and once you exhaust the sugars and fats, you are going to start using muscle, and muscle protects bone.

Too much exercise as can lead to serious health problems. Rest days are important to ensure you don't overtrain.
Road to recovery: Rest days are important to ensure you don’t overtrain, as excessive exercise can lead to serious health problems. (Image: via pixabay / CC0 1.0)

One of the big reasons why our bone density can reduce with too much exercise exercise is that we have metabolic and hormonal imbalances. This is particularly common in women — although it is increasingly recognized in men. A lack of estrogen (and potentially testosterone, but more research needs to be done here) and growth factor is associated with bones being stripped of their calcium content and becoming weaker.

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a very dangerous consequence doing too much exercise. We need calcium to be able to contract muscle. When there is none available from our diet, our bones will be stripped of theirs. Muscle mass will also reduce because it is not working properly. This also reduces the support and stresses placed on bones that contribute to their increase in strength.

Motion is lotion, at any age

There is no evidence to support or refute the idea that the older you are, the greater the risks from exercise. Exercise throughout the life span is very important, and that includes during pregnancy.

Many pregnant women are not physically active; often they’re too scared to be. People who are older and have lower bone diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are again often too scared, and often that’s because they’ve been told their joints are subject to wear and tear, but we know that that’s not true — motion is lotion! Exercise is medicine! Our joints are designed to move across our lifespans.

Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that older people and teenagers are equally inactive — our biggest inactive age group in Australia is teenage boys, and data has come out of Ausplay that shows that gross motor skill and fitness levels of our teenagers are definitely lower than in the 1990s.

Keep it moving: Older people and teenage boys are the two most inactive age groups in Australia, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Image: via pixabay / CC0 1.0)
Keep it moving: Older people and teenage boys are the two most inactive age groups in Australia, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Image: via pixabay / CC0 1.0)

During middle age, we do seem to be doing OK on the physical activity, but we could be doing more.

Assessing whether someone is doing too much exercise is specific to individuals: If someone is at a point where they are in relative energy deficit — not eating enough, losing a lot of weight that’s potentially muscle, as well as becoming psychologically dependent on the exercise — you could make an assessment about whether or not it was healthy for them. At that point, they are probbaly doing too much exercise.

But the percentage of the population who overexercise is quite small — within Australia, about 60 to 75 percent of people are even achieving guidelines  — so we are talking about extreme amounts of exercise when we are talking about too much exercise.

The last thing you want to do is say “don’t exercise,” because absolutely, go out and exercise and be active, and remember you don’t have to be competitive, you just have to participate — and follow those national recommendations of 150 minutes of moderate activity, and two resistance sessions, every week.

Provided by: Sarah Maguire, Macquarie University [Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.]

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